Advanced persistent threats are a type of targeted attack. APTs are characterized by an attacker who has time and resources to plan an infiltration into a network.
Adware is software that displays advertisements on your computer.
Anonymizing proxies allow the user to hide their web browsing activity. They are often used to bypass web security filters—e.g., to access blocked sites from a work computer.
Autorun worms are malicious programs that take advantage of the Windows AutoRun feature. They execute automatically when the device on which they are stored is plugged into a computer.