Buffer overflow attacks take advantage of this weakness by sending more data to a program than it expects. The program may then read in more data than it has reserved space for and overwrite parts of the memory that the operating system is using for other purposes.
Contrary to popular belief, buffer overflows don’t just happen in Windows services or core programs. They can occur in any application.
Buffer overflow protection (BOP) looks for code that uses buffer overflow techniques to target security vulnerabilities. (See Exploit, Drive-by download)